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CompSci 367/761 ASSIGNMENT 4: Domain Independent Planning
Due 8 October 11:59PM worth 5%.
1 Introduction
Note that in this document, we will use the terms "action" and "operator"
interchangeably.
In assignment 3, the domain knowledge was separated out from the search
knowledge. However, for each new domain you still had to write prolog code to
generate successors, etc. In this assignment, we are exploring how to standardise
the representation of states and successor knowledge, so that no programming is
needed to change domains. Instead, the domain actions are described declaratively,
and the states and goals are described using a variation of logic notation.
States are conjunctions of positive literals, e.g., [at(houston), unvisited(dallas),
unvisited(austin)], is a conjunction of those 3 literals. Goals are conjunctions of
positive and negative literals, [at(houston], not(unvisited(dallas))].
We introduce a new term, step, which is a record data structure defined in
planning.pl as step(opName, opParams, stepCost) where:
• opName is the name of an action,
• opParams is a binding list for its parameters, i.e., the values associated
with each of that actions variables,
• stepCost with is the cost of that action when used with that binding list.
The heart of domain independent planning is being able to:
1. check whether a list of goal literals is satisfied by a state;
2. determine whether a state satisfies the problem’s goal.
3. determine which steps are applicable to a state;
4. apply an applicable step to a state to produce a new state;
Your assignment is code up these 4 core pieces for a domain-independent
planner. You might find it easiest if you develop and test the code in the order
presented above. These 4 predicates will be specified in more detail in the next
section.
2 What you need to do
First, we need to clear up some terminology.
predicate a term of the form predName(Argument*
) where "Argument*" indicates
there may be zero or more arguments, where argument may be
a bound or unbound variable, or a constant. Example: not(edge(dallas,
City, 3)) is a predicate with predname not, and one argument, edge(dallas,
City, 3), and that argument itself is a predicate with 3 arguments, dallas,
City, and 3.
literal a predicate with no unbound variables.
negative predicate a not predicate as shown in example above.
There are 4 predicates mentioned in the Introduction, which you need to
write the code for:
1. satisfy(+Goals, +State)
2. satisfyGoal(+State)
3. op_Applicable(+State, ?OpName, ?Params)
4. op_ApplyOp(+OldState, +Step, ?NewState)
where:
• Goal is predicate, e.g., unvisited(houston),
• Goals is a list containing the list of Goal
• State is an ordered set (ordset library) of predicates,
• OpName is the name of an op specified in tsp/domain.pl,
• Step is an instance of a step data structure as described in the step record
declaration in planning.pl,
• Params is the binding list, a list of the values to be bound to the variables
in the preconditions and effects.
Goal and State are as described in the lectures. For example, a State data
structure will only have positive fluents.
State is used as the index into closed list. It is used to detect duplicate
states and to retrieve the solution. This requires that states have a canonical
description (i.e., a unique representation, a 1-to-1 correlation between a state
and its representation), which is why states are stored as ordered sets. Whenever
you create a new state, you must ensure that it is still represented as an ordered
set!
As mentioned in the lectures, the static predicates are stored in the problem’s
initial state description. For this assignment, this information is stored in the
InitialState field in the predicate, problem(problemName, InitialState, Goals),
in the prolog database.
1. Predicate Specification
(a) satisfies(+Goal, +State)
Goal is a predicate. Examples of use of satisfies:
2
• satisfies(edge(a, b, 3), State)
• satisfies(not(at(c)), State)
What it means for a State to satisfies a Goal depends upon what
type of goal it is, if the goal is a:
• positive fluent goal then it means Goal is an element of State
• positive static goal then it means that Goal is an element of the
problem’s initial state.
• positive metaLevel goal then it is defined by prolog code that
needs to be called.
• negative goal, i.e., it is not(Goal), then it means that Goal fails,
regardless of which type of Goal it is.
(b) satisfy(+Goals, +State)
Goals is a list of Goal. A State satisfy Goals iff State satisfies every
Goal in Goals.
State satisfyGoal iff State satisfy every goal in the problem’s Goal
list. The problem’s Goal list is stored in problem. To access it,
just execute "problem(_, _, Goals)" and Goals will be bound to the
problems Goal list.
(c) op_Applicable(+State, ?OpName, ?Params)
OpName with Params is op_Applicable iff the Preconditions for OpName
bound with the Params binding list makes satisfy(Preconditions,
State) true.
(d) op_ Apply(+OldState, +Step, ?NewState)
NewState is op_Apply to OldState via Step iff using NewState =
OldState - Step’s negative Effects + Step’s positive Effects. In other
words, The step’s negated effects are deleted from OldState and the
positive effects are added to form NewState.
For example, if OldState = [at(a), unvisited(b), unvisited(c)], the
negative effects = [not(at(a)), not(unvisited(b)], and the positive effects
= [at(b)] then NewState = [at(b), unvisited(c)]. Note that even
though the negative efects had not around them, it was their enclosed
predicate that was deleted, e.g., not(at(a)) deleted at(a) from
the NewState list. Also note that NewState must be an ordered set,
i.e., passes the is_ordset(+Term) test (see ordset library documentation).
3 Submission Information
1. What to submit
You need to submit a zip archive, yourUpi.zip (e.g., mbar098.zip) containing
ONLY the following files:
• counter.pl
• planning.pl
planning.pl has all the original code plus your code for the 4 predicates
described above. You need to also include in planning.pl any code that
you have written that is required by your predicates in order to function
properly.
2. When and where to submit
You need to submit this to Canvas by 8 October 23:59. Late submissions
are not accepted.
4 Marking Rubric
YOUR CODE WILL BE TESTED UNDER SWI PROLOG. IF IT DOES NOT
RUN UNDER SWI PROLOG AS IS, IT WILL GET A ZERO!
There first predicate (satisfies(+Goal, +State)) is worth 2 marks and
each of the other 3 predicates will be worth 1 mark for correct implementation.
There may be partial credit in some cases.
1. Important Marking Information
(a) Exceptions
Late assignments WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED except under exceptional
circumstances, e.g., illness or family emergencies. These will
need to be documented as appropriate. Remember you should always
backup your files somewhere other than on your computer, therefore
if you computer dies with all your files on it. You are expected to be
able to continue working in the lab machines from your backup files!
(b) Copying is forbidden
If any students are found to have cheated they will get zero marks
for the assignment and may be brought up on academic dishonesty
charges.

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