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Project Four: Blackjack
Out: Oct. 31, 2019; Due: Nov. 14, 2019
I. Motivation
To give you experience in implementing abstract data types (ADTs), using interfaces (abstract
base classes), and using interface/implementation inheritance.
II. Introduction
In this project, we will implement a simplified version of the card game called Blackjack, also
sometimes called 21. It is a relatively simple game played with a standard deck of 52 playing
cards. There are two participants, a dealer and a player. The player starts with a bankroll, and
the game progresses in rounds called hands.
At the start of each hand, the player decides how much to wager on this hand. It can be any
amount between some minimum allowable wager and the player’s total bankroll, inclusive.
After the wager, the dealer deals a total of four cards: the first face-up to the player, the second
face-up to himself, the third face-up to the player, and the fourth face-down to himself. The
second card of the dealer that is face-down is called the hole card.
The player then examines his cards, forming a total. Each card 2-10 is worth its spot value; each
face card (jack, queen, king) is also worth 10. An ace is worth either 1 or 11--whichever is more
advantageous to the player (i.e., as close to 21 as possible without going over). If the total
includes an ace counted as 11, the total is called “soft”, otherwise it is called “hard”.
The game progresses first with the player, then the dealer. The player’s goal is to build a hand
that is as close to 21 as possible without going over---the latter is called a “bust”, and a player
who busts loses the hand without forcing the dealer to play. As long as the player believes
another card will help, the player “hits”---asks the dealer for another card. Each of these
additional cards is dealt face-up. This process ends either when the player decides to “stand”---
ask for no cards, or the player busts. Note that a player can stand with two cards; one need not hit
at all in a hand.
If the player is dealt an ace plus any ten or face card (jack, queen, king), the player’s hand is
called a “natural 21”, and the player’s wager is paid off with 3 to 2 odds, without examining the
dealer’s cards. In other words, if the player had wagered 10, the player would win 15 (i.e., his
bankroll will increase by 15) if dealt a natural 21. Note that, since we are working with integers,
you’ll have to be a bit careful with the 3/2 payout. For example, a wager of 5 would pay 7 if a
natural 21 is dealt, since (3*5)/2 is 7 in integer arithmetic.
If the player neither busts nor is dealt a natural 21, play then progresses to the dealer. The dealer
must hit until he either reaches a total greater than or equal to 17 (hard or soft), or busts. If the
dealer busts, the player wins. Otherwise, the two totals are compared. If the dealer’s total is
higher, the player’s bankroll decreases by the amount of his wager. If the player’s total is higher,
his bankroll increases by the amount of his wager. If the totals are equal, the bankroll is
unchanged; this is called a “push”.
Note that this is a very simplified form of the game: we do not split pairs, allow double-down
bets, or take insurance, etc. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackjack)
III. Programming Assignment
You will provide one or more implementations of four separate abstractions for this project: a
deck of cards, a blackjack hand, a blackjack player, and a game driver. All files referenced in this
specification are located in the Projects/Project-4 folder on Canvas.
You may copy them to your private directory space, but do not modify them in any way. This
will help ensure that your submitted project compiles correctly.
1. The Deck ADT
Your first task is to implement the following ADT representing a deck of cards:
class DeckEmpty { // An exception type
};
const int DeckSize = 52;
class Deck {

// A standard deck of 52 playing cards---no jokers
Card deck[DeckSize]; // The deck of cards
int next; // The next card to deal
public:
Deck();
// EFFECTS: constructs a "newly opened" deck of cards: first the
// spades from 2 to A, then the hearts, then the clubs, then the
// diamonds. The first card dealt should be the 2 of Spades.

void reset();
// EFFECTS: resets the deck to the state of a "newly opened" deck
// of cards.
void shuffle(int n);
// REQUIRES: "n" is between 0 and 52, inclusive.
// MODIFIES: this
// EFFECTS: cut the deck into two segments: the first "n" cards,
// called the "left", and the rest called the "right". Note that
// either right or left might be empty. Then, rearrange the deck
// to be the first card of the right, then the first card of the
// left, the 2nd of right, the 2nd of left, and so on. Once one
// side is exhausted, fill in the remainder of the deck with the
// cards remaining in the other side. Finally, make the first
// card in this shuffled deck the next card to deal. For example,
// shuffle(26) on a newly-reset() deck results in: 2-clubs,
// 2-spades, 3-clubs, 3-spades ... A-diamonds, A-hearts.
//
// Note: if shuffle is called on a deck that has already had some
// cards dealt, those cards should first be restored to the deck
// in the order in which they were dealt, preserving the most
// recent post-shuffled/post-reset state. After shuffling, the
// next card to deal is the first one in the deck.
Card deal();
// MODIFIES: this
// EFFECTS: deals the "next" card and returns that card.
// If no cards remain, throws an instance of DeckEmpty.
int cardsLeft();
// EFFECTS: returns the number of cards in the deck that have not
// been dealt since the last reset/shuffle.
};
The Deck ADT is specified in deck.h. The Deck ADT depends on the following Card type:
enum Suit {
SPADES, HEARTS, CLUBS, DIAMONDS
};
extern const char *SuitNames[DIAMONDS+1];
enum Spot {
TWO, THREE, FOUR, FIVE, SIX, SEVEN, EIGHT, NINE, TEN,
JACK, QUEEN, KING, ACE
};
extern const char *SpotNames[ACE+1];
struct Card {
Spot spot;
Suit suit;
};
which is declared in card.h, implemented by card.cpp, and included by deck.h. The file
card.cpp defines SpotNames and SuitNames for you, so that SuitNames[HEARTS]
evaluates to “Hearts”, and so on.
Note that the keyword extern tells the compiler that a global variable exists (and is defined
somewhere) so that it can compile any code using the global variable. In the linking step, the
linker will resolve the references of the global variable to its unique definition in one of the
compiled files.
You are asked to put your implementation of this ADT in a file named deck.cpp.
2. The Hand Interface
Your second task is to implement the following ADT representing a blackjack hand:
struct HandValue {
int count; // Value of hand
bool soft; // true if hand value is a soft count
};
class Hand {
// OVERVIEW: A blackjack hand of zero or more cards

// Note: this really is the only private state you need!
HandValue curValue;
public:
Hand();
// EFFECTS: establishes an empty blackjack hand.

void discardAll();
// MODIFIES: this
// EFFECTS: discards any cards presently held, restoring the state
// of the hand to that of an empty blackjack hand.
void addCard(Card c);
// MODIFIES: this
// EFFECTS: adds the card "c" to those presently held.
HandValue handValue() const;
// EFFECTS: returns the present value of the blackjack hand. The
// count field is the highest blackjack total possible without
// going over 21. The soft field should be true if and only if at
// least one ACE is present, and its value is counted as 11 rather
// than 1. If the hand is over 21, any value over 21 may be
// returned.
//
// Note: the const qualifier at the end of handValue means that
// you are not allowed to change any member variables inside
// handValue. Adding this prevents any accidental change by you.
};
The Hand ADT is specified in hand.h The Hand ADT depends on the Card type, and includes
card.h. You are asked to put your implementation of this ADT in a file named hand.cpp.
3. The Player Interface
Your third task is to implement two different blackjack players. The interface for a Player is:
class Player {
// A virtual base class, providing the player interface
public:
virtual int bet(unsigned int bankroll,
unsigned int minimum) = 0;
// REQUIRES: bankroll >= minimum
// EFFECTS: returns the player's bet, between minimum and bankroll
// inclusive
virtual bool draw(Card dealer, // Dealer's "up card"
const Hand &player) = 0; // Player's current hand
// EFFECTS: returns true if the player wishes to be dealt another
// card, false otherwise.
virtual void expose(Card c) = 0;
// EFFECTS: allows the player to "see" the newly-exposed card c.
// For example, each card that is dealt "face up" is expose()d.
// Likewise, if the dealer must show his "hole card", it is also
// expose()d. Note: not all cards dealt are expose()d---if the
// player goes over 21 or is dealt a natural 21, the dealer need
// not expose his hole card.
virtual void shuffled() = 0;
// EFFECTS: tells the player that the deck has been re-shuffled.
};
The Player ADT is specified in player.h The Player ADT depends on the Hand type, and
includes hand.h. You are to implement two different derived classes from this interface.
The first derived class is the Simple player, who plays a simplified version of a basic strategy for
blackjack. The simple player always places the minimum allowable wager, and decides to hit or
stand based on the following rules and whether or not the player has a “hard count” or “soft
count”:
The first set of rules applies if the player has a “hard count”, i.e., his best total counts an Ace (if
any) for 1, not 11, or if his hand does not contain an Ace.
 If the player’s hand totals 11 or less, he always hits.
 If the player’s hand totals 12, he stands if the dealer shows 4, 5, or 6; otherwise he hits.
 If the player’s hand totals between 13 and 16 inclusive, he stands if the dealer shows a 2
through a 6 inclusive; otherwise he hits.
 If the player's hand totals 17 or greater, he always stands.
The second set of rules applies if the player has a “soft count”---his best total includes one Ace
worth 11. (Note that a hand would never count two Aces as 11 each--that's a bust of 22.)
 If the player’s hand totals 17 or less, he always hits.
 If the player’s hand totals 18, he stands if the dealer shows a 2, 7, or 8, otherwise he hits.
 If the player’s hand totals 19 or greater, he always stands.
Note: the Simple player does nothing for expose and shuffled events.
The second derived class is the Counting player. This player counts cards in addition to playing
the basic strategy. The intuition behind card counting is that when the deck has more face cards
(worth 10) than low-numbered cards, the deck is favorable to the player. The converse is also
true.
The Counting player keeps a running “count” of the cards he has seen from the deck. Each time
he sees (via the expose() method) a 10, Jack, Queen, King, or Ace, he subtracts one from the
count. Each time he sees a 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, he adds one to the count. When he sees that the deck is
shuffled(), the count is reset to zero. Whenever the count is +2 or greater and he has enough
bankroll (larger than or equal to the double of the minimum), the Counting player bets double
the minimum, otherwise (i.e., including the situation where count >= +2 but the bankroll is less
than the double of the minimum) he bets the minimum. The Counting player should not reimplement
methods of the Simple player unnecessarily.
The code for both of these Players must be implemented in a file named player.cpp. You
must also declare a static global instance of each of the two Players you implement in your
player.cpp file. Finally, you should implement the following “access” functions that return
pointers to each of these two global instances in your player.cpp file.
extern Player *get_Simple();
extern Player *get_Counting();
4. The Driver program
Finally, you are to implement a driver program that can be used to simulate this version of
blackjack given your implementation of the ADTs described above.
You are asked to put your implementation of this driver program in a file named
blackjack.cpp.
The driver program, when run, takes three arguments:
[simple|counting]
The first argument is an integer denoting the player’s starting bankroll. The second argument is
the maximum number of hands to play in the simulation. You can assume that these two
integers input by the user are positive (≥1) and within an upper limit of 10000. The final
argument is one of the two strings “simple” or “counting”, denoting which of the two players to
use in the simulation.
For example, suppose that your program is called blackjack. It may be invoked by typing in a
terminal:
./blackjack 100 3 simple
Then your program simulates the simple player playing 3 hands with an initial bankroll of 100.
The driver first shuffles the deck. To shuffle the deck, you choose seven cuts between 13 and 39
inclusive at random, shuffling the deck with each of these cuts. We have supplied a header,
rand.h, and an implementation, rand.cpp, that define a function that provides these random
cuts. Each time the deck is shuffled, first announce it:
cout << "Shuffling the deck\n";
And announce each of the seven cut points:
cout << "cut at " << cut << endl;
then be sure to tell the player via shuffle().
Note: you should always print the message corresponding to the initial shuffle before you do
anything further.
We assume that the minimum bet is 5. Then, while the player's bankroll is larger than or equal to
the minimum bet of 5 and there are hands left to be played:
 Announce the hand:
cout << "Hand " << thishand << " bankroll " << bankroll << endl;
where the variable thishand is the hand number, starting from 1.
 If there are strictly less than 20 cards left, reshuffle the deck as described above. Note that
this happens only at the beginning of each hand. It does not occur during a hand even if the
number of cards is fewer than 20.
 Ask the player for a wager and announce it:
cout << "Player bets " << wager << endl;
 Deal four cards: one face-up to the player, one face-up to the dealer, one face-up to the player,
and one face-down to the dealer. Announce the face-up cards using cout. For example:
Player dealt Ace of Spades
Dealer dealt Two of Hearts
Use the SpotNames and SuitNames arrays for this, and be sure to expose() any faceup
cards to the player.
 If the player is dealt a natural 21, immediately pay the player 3/2 of his bet. Note that, since
we are working with integers, you’ll have to be a bit careful with the 3/2 payout. For example,
a wager of 5 would pay 7 if a natural 21 is dealt, since (3*5)/2 is 7 in integer arithmetic. In
this case, announce the win:
cout << "Player dealt natural 21\n";
 If the player is not dealt a natural 21, have the player play his hand. Draw cards until the
player either stands or busts. Announce and expose() each card dealt as above.
 Announce the player's total
cout << "Player's total is " << player_count << endl;
where the variable player_count is the total value of the player’s hand. If the player
busts, say so:
cout << "Player busts\n";
deducting the wager from the bankroll and moving on to the next hand.
 If the player hasn’t busted, announce and expose the dealer’s hole card. For example:
Dealer's hole card is Ace of Spades
(Note: the hole card is NOT exposed if either the player busts or is dealt a natural 21.)
 If the player hasn’t busted, play the dealer’s hand. The dealer must hit until reaching
seventeen or busting. Announce and expose each card as above.
 Announce the dealer’s total
cout << "Dealer's total is " << dealer_count << endl;
where the variable dealer_count is the total value of the dealer’s hand. If the dealer busts,
say so
cout << "Dealer busts\n";
crediting the wager from the bankroll and moving on to the next hand.
 If neither the dealer nor the player bust, compare the totals and announce the outcome. Credit
the bankroll, debit it, or leave it unchanged as appropriate.
cout << "Dealer wins\n";
cout << "Player wins\n";
cout << "Push\n";
 If the player's bankroll is larger than or equal to the minimum bet of 5 and there are hands
left to be played, then continue to play the next hand (i.e., start again from the first bullet
point “Announce the hand”).
Finally, when the player either has too little money to make a minimum wager or the allotted
hands have been played, announce the outcome:
cout << "Player has " << bankroll
<< " after " << thishand << " hands\n";
where the variable thishand is the current hand number. In the special case where the initial
bankroll is less than the minimum, we have thishand = 0, since the player hasn’t played any
hand yet. Furthermore, in this special case, the initial shuffle of the deck should still be
announced before you print the status of the player.
IV. Implementation Requirements and Restrictions
 You may #include , , , , and
. No other system header files may be included, and you may not make any call
to any function in any other library.
 Output should only be done where it is specified.
 You may not use the goto command.
 You may not have any global variables in the driver. You may use global state in the class
implementations, but it must be static and (except for the two players) const.
 You may assume that functions are called consistently with their advertised specifications.
This means you need not perform error checking. However, when testing your code in
concert, you may use the assert() macro to program defensively.
V. Source Code Files and Compiling
There are five header files (card.h, deck.h, hand.h, player.h, and rand.h) and two
C++ source files (card.cpp and rand.cpp) in Project-4-Related-Files.zip from
our Canvas Resources:
You should copy these files into your working directory. DO NOT modify them!
You need to write four other C++ source files: deck.cpp, hand.cpp, player.cpp, and
blackjack.cpp. They are discussed above and summarized below:
deck.cpp: your Deck ADT implementation
hand.cpp: your Hand ADT implementation
player.cpp: your two player ADT implementations
blackjack.cpp: your simulation driver
After you have written these files, you can type the following command in the terminal to
compile the program:
g++ -Wall –o blackjack blackjack.cpp card.cpp deck.cpp hand.cpp
player.cpp rand.cpp
This will generate a program called blackjack in your working directory. In order to
guarantee that the TAs compile your program successfully, you should name you source code
files exactly like how they are specified above.
VI. Testing
For this project, you should write individual, focused test cases for all the ADT implementations.
For these ADTs, determine the behaviors required of the implementation. Then, for each of these
behaviors:
 Determine the specific behavior that the implementation must exhibit.
 Write a program that, when linked against the implementation of the ADT, tests for the
presence/absence of that behavior.
For example, if you identify two behaviors in Deck implementation, you would have two files,
each testing one behavior. You can name them as follows:
deck.case.1.cpp
deck.case.2.cpp
Your test cases for this project are considered “acceptance tests”. The tests for your Hand/Deck
ADT (each of which includes a main() function) should be linked against card.cpp (that
you can assume to be correct) and your possibly incorrect hand.cpp/deck.cpp when you
compile your program. The tests for your Player ADT (each of which includes a main()
function) should be linked against card.cpp, an already tested hand.cpp that you would
assume to be correct, and your possibly incorrect player.cpp when you compile your
program.
Your test case must decide, based on the results from calls to Hand/Deck/Player methods,
whether the Hand/Deck/Player ADT is correct or incorrect. If your case believes the
Hand/Deck/Player to be correct, it should return 0 from main(). If your case believes the
Hand/Deck/Player to be incorrect, it should return any value other than zero (the value -1 is
commonly used to denote failure). Do not compare the output of your test cases against
correct/incorrect implementations. Instead, look at the return value of your program when it is
run in Linux to see if you return the right value based upon whether your test finds an error in the
implementation of the ADT you are testing.
In Linux you can check the return value of your program by typing
echo $?
immediately after running your program. You also may find it helpful to add error messages to
your output.
Here is an example of code that tests a hypothetical “integer add” function (declared in
addInts.h) with an “expected” test case:
// Tests the addInts function
#include "addInts.h"
int main() {
int x = 3;
int y = 4;
int answer = 7;
int candidate = addInts(x, y);
if (candidate == answer) {
return 0;
} else {
return -1;
}
}
You should write a collection of Hand/Deck/Player implementations with different, specific bugs,
and make tests to identify the incorrect code.
We have supplied one example of a test source file example.cpp which tests the
shuffle(int) method of the Deck ADT.
We have also supplied one simple set of output produced by a correct deck, hand, simple player,
and driver. It is called sample.txt. To test your entire project, type the following into the
Linux terminal once your program has been compiled:
./blackjack 100 3 simple > test.out
diff test.out sample.txt
If the diff program reports any differences at all, you have a bug.
VII. Submitting and Due Date
You should submit four source code files deck.cpp, hand.cpp, player.cpp, and
blackjack.cpp. (You do not need to submit a Makefile for this project.) These files
should be submitted as a tar file via the online judgment system. See the announcement from the
TAs for details about submission. The due date is 11:59 pm on Nov. 14, 2019.
VIII. Grading
Your program will be graded along three criteria:
1. Functional Correctness
2. Implementation Constraints
3. General Style
Functional Correctness is determined by running a variety of test cases against your program,
checking against our reference solution. We will grade Implementation Constraints to see if you
have met all of the implementation requirements and restrictions. General Style refers to the ease
with which TAs can read and understand your program, and the cleanliness and elegance of your
code. For example, significant code duplication will lead to General Style deductions.

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