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Lab 10: Adventuring in the Land of Trebor
CSCI 2122 - Fall 2020
1 Introduction
This final lab is designed for you to create a program which can utilize some past data structures to help the heroes
of the land of Trebor become famed and experienced adventurers.
In this lab you are expected to perform the basics of cloning your Lab 10 repository from the GitLab course group.
A link to the course group can be found here and your repository can be found in the Lab10 subgroup. See the
Lab Technical Document for more information on using git. You will notice that your repository has a file in the
Lab10 directory named delete this file. Due to the limitations of GitLab, we are not able to push completely
empty directories. Before you push your work to your repository (which should be in the Lab10 directory anyway),
make sure to first use the git rm command to remove the extra file. If you do not, your pipeline could fail.
Be sure to read this entire document before starting!
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2 Foreword
In this lab you will be writing several program contracts, although those contracts are much less structured than
in previous labs. You are free to write your code however you’d like, although you are still required to adhere to
the checklist found in the Submission section of this document. We recommend you look that over before you start
coding so you know which requirements do exist.
While we do not have specific function requirements in the form of function contracts, we do expect you to adhere to
good code design:
1. Include as many comments as necessary to make your code easy to understand.
2. Create reasonably modular code and make functions for things you do repeatedly (initializations, common data
manipulations, etc.).
3. Split your code into multiple C source/header files and use a Makefile to compile them all together. Don’t put
all of your code into one giant file. This is inefficient and messy and you are likely to lose points if you do so.
4. Remember that debugging tools can help you create better code by pointing out memory leaks or invalid
reads/writes. Use them often to produce better code.
At the end of this lab you will be tasked with creating your own GitLab pipeline scripts. You may find it easier to
make these as you are coding so you can stay on top of each thing you plan on testing. Feel free to look at the past
GitLab pipeline scripts included in the previous labs (the .gitlab-ci.yml file and the scripts in the CI directories). We
will briefly go through the anatomy of a pipeline job script in the Pipeline Scripts section.
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3 The Land of Trebor
In the Land of Trebor you will find many kinds of adventurers, from the aquamancers of the Southern Seas to the
knights of the Halls of Splendor. There are many perils through the lands, and it’s your job to help as many adventurers
reach level 200 as possible.
In this lab, you will be given 300 heroes and 200 adventuring locations. Heroes can start at any location you choose,
but then are tasked with moving from area to area, trying to overcome the challenges within. Once an area is
completed, the hero will gain a level and their attributes will increase. If a hero is unable to complete a given area,
they perish, but their journey’s end is recorded in the record books.
3.1 Heroes
A hero is a skilled adventurer trying to overcome the mystical challenges of the world. All heroes contain the following
vital statistics:
Name: Every hero needs a name. This will be used to differentiate heroes from each other because simply
numbering them seems rude.
Class: Every hero is given a class, which defines what their job is. Most jobs are assigned randomly, but a few
rare jobs are assigned based on statistics.
Strength Attribute: Some heroes are strong. They will do well in locations that need Power.
Agility Attribute: Some heroes are fast. They will do well in locations that require Subtlety.
Intelligence Attribute: Some heroes are smart. They will do well in locations which need Strategy.
Charisma Attribute: Some heroes are smooth talkers. They will do well in locations which need Charm.
Level: A hero’s level determines how their attributes improve. A hero always starts at level 0. Get to level 200
and they’ll go down in the history books!
While you are free to code your program however you’d like, we recommend creating a C struct for holding the various
Hero information. You should minimally have a field for each of the statistics mentioned above, although if you
think there should be more fields added (for your convenience), feel free to do so. In this lab we will not restrict how
you write your code, although you should make sure your submission matches the checklist in the Submission section.
This lab includes a file named heroes.lot which contains starting statistics for 300 heroes. Each hero entry is stored
in plain text in the heroes.lot file and contains three lines. There will be 300 such heroes stored one after another in
the text file.
The first line in a hero’s entry is a string representing their name. The second line in a hero’s entry is a string
representing their class name. The third line in a hero’s entry is a comma-separated list of numbers, which represent
that hero’s Strength, Agility, Intelligence, and Charisma, in that order. These hero attributes start in the range [5, 25]
and should increase over time based on their primary attribute (see Gaining Levels below). The heroes in the .lot
file are given in no particular order.
For example:
In this entry we find the hero named ”Rosalina the Vigilant”. Her class is ”Diviner”, which is a type of wizard that
specializes in divination magic, often letting them predict the future or see/hear distant places. She has 22 Strength,
25 Agility, 6 Intelligence, and 22 Charisma. She’s very good at most things, but apparently not very studious. Seems
backwards for a wizard, but who am I to judge? She might become a great hero someday!
It’s a good idea to read in the heroes.lot file and store all of that hero information somewhere so you can use it while
your program is running. How you do this is completely up to you.
3.2 Locations
A location is a dungeon or questing location where a hero can solve a problem and earn some experience. In order
for a hero to be legendary, they must reach level 200. Each time a hero completes a location, they gain one level. If
they fail to complete a location, they die a heroic death. How tragic!
A location has the following vital statistics:
Name: The name of the location. This is used to differentiate locations later.
Level: The difficulty level the location was generated with. While this is generally a good indication of difficulty,
there is some variance between location level and that location’s difficulty ratings.
Power Rating: The location’s Power rating opposes a hero’s Strength.
Subtlety Rating: The location’s Power rating opposes a hero’s Agility.
Strategy Rating: The location’s Power rating opposes a hero’s Intelligence.
Charm Rating: The location’s Power rating opposes a hero’s Charisma.
While you are free to code your program however you like, similar to the heroes, we recommend creating a C struct
to hold Location information. You may find this especially useful when working with threads with the hero/location
restrictions. See the Challenging a Location section below.
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This lab includes a file named locations.lot which contains the statistics for each location you will be using in your
simulations, stored in plain text. Each location will be stored as two lines and there are 200 such locations stored in
the text file.
The first line in a location’s entry is a string representing the location’s name. The second line of a location’s entry
is a comma-separated list of numbers which represent that location’s Level, Power, Subtlety, Strategy, and Charm
ratings, in that order. These attributes could be any integer values, but the current locations.lot file’s ratings do not
exceed 75. The locations in the .lot file are given in no particular order.
For example:
In this entry we find a location named ”The Dread Catacombs”. This location has a Level of 1, a Power Rating of
13, a Subtlety Rating of 21, a Strategy Rating of 12, and a Charm Rating of 17. This is a somewhat average early
location, where most heroes should be able to challenge this location successfully.
Similar to the heroes file, it’s a good idea to read in the locations.lot file and store your locations in a place where
they are easily retrievable later.
3.3 Challenging a Location
Now that you’ve read in and stored your heroes and locations, it’s time to consider what happens when a hero enters
a location and attempts to defeat any monsters and solve any puzzles inside. We won’t make you work that out on
an individual basis, so instead we will abstract the challenge that a location presents by breaking it down into a few
comparisons.
Whenever a hero attempts to challenge an area, you will compare the hero’s attributes to the difficulty ratings of the
location. Consider the following example with Rosalina and the Dread Catacombs:
Rosalina the Vigilant The Dread Catacombs
Strength 22 13 Power
Agility 25 21 Subtlety
Intelligence 6 12 Strategy
Charisma: 22 17 Charm
When Rosalina challenges the Dread Catacombs, you perform the following comparisons between the hero and the
location: Strength vs. Power, Agility vs. Subtlety, Intelligence vs. Strategy, Charisma vs. Charm. For each comparison,
if the hero’s attribute is greater than or equal to the corresponding location rating, then the hero wins that
test. In the above table, the bolded values are the winners of the comparisons. If the hero wins any tests in the
challenge, they have successfully completed the challenge. They gain one level and then move to the next location on
their path. In Rosalina’s case, she has a successful test of Strength, Agility, and Charisma, so she gains a level and
moves to the next location.
If the hero does not manage to successfully win any tests, they perish at this location. You should store which location
the hero died in (for use later), then add the hero’s name to a list of all characters who have died at this location.
When a hero is challenging a location, no other hero is allowed to challenge that location at the same time. If a hero
attempts to challenge a location which is already being challenged, they must wait until that location is free before
they can start their challenge. You may want to consider ways to keep other heroes from entering locations they
shouldn’t, from the point of view of threads.
3.4 Gaining Levels
When a hero levels up, their level statistic should increase by 1. At that point their attributes should be increased.
When a hero enters the world, they have some statistics based on the heroes.lot file. Whatever their highest attribute
is when they enter play is considered their primary attribute. In the case of a tie, choose their primary
attribute in the order of Strength, Agility, Intelligence, and then Charisma. For example, if a character has 22 Agility
and Charisma, then Agility is their primary attribute.
A hero’s primary attribute will improve faster than their other attributes when they gain a level. Make sure you take
note of each character’s primary attribute as necessary.
When a character gains a level, their primary attribute should increase by 0.35 and all of their other attributes should
increase by 0.25.
3.5 Running the Simulation
In order to do any adventuring in the Land of Trebor, you will need to follow the steps found here. Note that these
steps are recommended as an overarching design philosophy, but are not necessarily the only way to do it. If you
have a different strategy for solving the problems as they have been laid out, feel free to attempt those instead.
This lab expects you to use a thread pool to send your adventurers out into the world to go questing. This means
only a certain number of heroes will be adventuring at any given time. When an adventurer has completed every
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location (and thus achieved level 200) or they have died, they are removed from the thread pool and the next hero’s
adventure begins. When all of the heroes’ adventures have concluded, we will then print some information about the
simulation to the screen. That said, the following sections will outline a reasonable order to achieve success with this
lab.
3.5.1 Define your Structs
You should define any structs necessary to hold data. For us, this would include an Args struct for holding any
necessary thread input data, a Hero struct for holding Hero information, and a Location struct for holding Location
information. The various structs could potentially hold more than the fields explicitly outlined in the previous sections,
such as lists of names in the Location struct for dead heroes. It’s always a good idea to have a design in mind before
you start coding.
3.5.2 Decide on Preliminary Source and Header Files
Create C source files and header files for categories of data. For example, it might be useful to have heroes.c,
locations.c, and simulation.c (along with their associated headers) to hold structs and functions for the heroes,
locations, and your main thread pool/simulation logic.
3.5.3 Decide on an Initial Design Flow
If you need to, draw on some paper how you imagine the interaction of various pieces of code will occur, then create
a list of functions which will be capable of following those interactions. For example, if you have to read in various
pieces of data from a file, consider when that will happen in the overall flow of your code. How will you handle
location ordering? Under which conditions will you decide when to create a new thread for the pool, and when will
that generally happen? Writing some pseudo-code in comments to outline the steps and procedures of your program
before you write it can make your life significantly easier in the long run.
3.5.4 Create a Working Makefile
This is not something to be left to the end. This is what you should do at the start, once you finalize which libraries
and files you will need to compile in order to reach the final executable file. Remember to make object (.o) files
for each of your source files, and use the -g compiler option whenever you can in order to help with the debugging
process. It’s also extremely useful to define a clean target in your Makefile so you can remove any generated .o or
executable files for the next time you run make, which will then compile everything completely from scratch.
3.5.5 Get One Hero Working without Threads
Start by reading in a single hero and a single location and write a function for having a hero challenge a location.
Get that working perfectly. Once that’s done, read in multiple locations and test your hero against all of them.
3.5.6 Repeat with Multiple Heroes
Once you have one hero working on many locations, try running different heroes against the same locations and see if
the results are as you expect them to be. Getting multiple heroes working on a subset of locations is a good starting
point for threads.
3.5.7 Attempt to Run Threads for Your Heroes
Next you can try creating a thread for each hero and see if they are still able to execute properly. Don’t run more
than one thread at a time until you’re able to get the single threads working.
3.5.8 Set Up Your Thread Pool
Once you have the hero threads working, you can start to build your thread pool. Start with a small thread pool.
You may find it useful to accept a single command line argument (which will appear in argv in your main function
definition) to define the number of threads in your thread pool. That way you can execute your program with
./programName N to tell your program to create a pool with N threads.
3.5.9 Ensure Your Threads Aren’t Racing
One of the problems with threads is that they can enter a race condition, where two threads will operate on the same
data and cause that data’s state to become unstable. We detailed how to avoid race conditions and protect critical
sections in Lab 9. You may need to treat Locations as critical sections.
3.5.10 Collect and Print Required Information
Once your thread pool executes successfully and all of the threads have been completed, you can collect and print
any relevant statistics to the screen, as defined by the contract you’re currently working on.
4 Pipeline Scripts
Creating a pipeline script to run on GitLab is similar to writing a bash script, with a few small bookkeeping changes,
which will be outlined below. When you push to GitLab and there is a pipeline script available, GitLab will automatically
attempt to execute that pipeline script to completion by executing a series of jobs. The jobs are executed based
on the order defined by the pipeline system and (typically) the current stage of the pipeline depends on the previous.
This means you can logically break your various jobs out into the individual stages and ensure that everything runs
in the appropriate order. While this is be no means a comprehensive explanation of pipeline script files, it should be
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more than enough to get you started with your own pipeline executions.
We will start with the pipeline script from Lab 8. Every pipeline script is stored in the root of your repository and
must be named .gitlab-ci.yml in order for GitLab to properly detect it. The script for Lab 8 can be seen here:
1 # Robert Smith -- Check Lab 8 Code Outputs
2
3 stages :
4 - setup
5 - build
6 - test
7
8 check - file - structure :
9 stage : setup
10 tags :
11 - ugrad
12 script :
13 - test -d Lab8
14 - test -d Lab8 / birthday
15 - test -d Lab8 / heap
16 - test -f Lab8 / birthday / birthday_debug
17 - test -f Lab8 / heap / heap . c
18 - test -f Lab8 / heap / heap . h
19 - test -f Lab8 / heap / Makefile
20
21 run - birthday :
22 stage : test
23 tags :
24 - ugrad
25 script :
26 - cp CI / objects / birthday /* Lab8 / birthday /
27 - cd Lab8 / birthday /
28 - test -f happy_birthday_geralt
29 - test -f example_story_out
30 - gdb - batch -x birthday_debug
31 - ../../ CI / compare - memory - outputs . sh
32
33 run - heap :
34 stage : test
35 tags :
36 - ugrad
37 script :
38 - cp CI / objects / heap /* Lab8 / heap /
39 - cd Lab8 / heap /
40 - rm -f heap .o heap rheap
41 - make
42 - test -f heap .o
43 - test -f heap
44 - test -f rheap
45 - ./ heap
46 - ./ rheap
In the above script, we can see there are a few different keywords which define different components of the pipeline
script. To begin, for consistency, we are defining three stages of testing and execution (which we don’t necessarily
have to use all of, but can). We have used them all at some point during the semester for our pipelines.
The stages of the pipeline execution flow are broken down into three stages in this script: setup, build, and test.
While these can be expressive, they’re also categorical labels and can be almost anything you’d like. These three are
simple and somewhat standard, so we continue to use them. These stages will execute in the order presented here.
Notice that those lines begin with a -. This is the default way of executing commands.
The rest of the script is broken down into jobs. Each job has some parameters associated with it, followed by a
script. The stage parameter defines which stage this job should occur in. Jobs which occur in the later defined stages
are dependent on the previous stages to complete, which means the only way the build stage is executed is if every
job in the setup stage passes successfully. Therefore, in this case, we can see that check-file-structure must pass
if we expect the run-birthday or run-heap to begin. Jobs which are set to execute in the same stage will usually
execute in parallel.
The tags section of each job will tell GitLab which GitLab pipeline runners (threads specifically for finding pending
jobs and running them) this pipeline is allowed to use. In the case of the CS GitLab server, we will always tell it to
use ugrad (undergraduate server) runners, which will force the system to run our script on Timberlea (or Bluenose
in the case of a fallback situation). This will always need to be set this way in your pipeline scripts or you may never
get a runner.
Once your stage and tags are set, you can provide a script for the runner to execute. This script is a list of Unix
commands (similar to a bash script file) and these commands will execute in order. The script section is the main
system which will cause your pipeline to reach a Passed or Failure state. Each script is executed, one after the the
other. Every script command executes and GitLab waits to receive its exit code. You may remember from previous
labs that an exit code of 0 is considered success. If every script command returns an exit code of 0, then the entire
job will pass. If the runner receives an exit code of anything other than 0, it will immediately fail.
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Let’s look at the run-heap job here:
1 run - heap :
2 stage : test
3 tags :
4 - ugrad
5 script :
6 - cp CI / objects / heap /* Lab8 / heap /
7 - cd Lab8 / heap /
8 - rm -f heap .o heap rheap
9 - make
10 - test -f heap .o
11 - test -f heap
12 - test -f rheap
13 - ./ heap
14 - ./ rheap
This job occurs during the test stage and executes with a ugrad runner. Once a runner is found, it begins its script.
The pipeline begins execution at the root of the repository. At line 6 it copies all of the contents of the CI/objects/heap
directory into the Lab8/heap directory. This gives the heap contract code (and the pipeline itself) access
to any of the necessary object and output files for testing purposes. At line 7, the pipeline changes its directory to
the Lab8/heap directory. At line 8 and 9, we force-remove the required object and executable files for the heap,
and then run make to re-create those files. We then use the Unix test command to ensure the make command has
generated the heap.o, heap, and rheap files on lines 10-12. Once we verify those files exist, we execute heap on line
13, and rheap on line 14.
The test command is a Unix command which returns 0 if the file or directory it’s looking for exists. Setting the -f
option tells it to look for a file and the -d option tells it to look for a directory. If the file or directory at the given
path does not exist, it exits with a 1, which will make the pipeline fail. In general, the test main functions we provide
for your programs will return a 0 on success and some other positive number if they reach a fail state, which causes
the job (and thus the pipeline) to fail.
In this lab we will be asking you to create your own pipeline testing scripts to ensure everything is being produced
the way you expect it. It could be worthwhile to look back through the various lab repositories to see how the other
.gitlab-ci.yml files were written so you can have some better insight into how to create your own pipeline scripts. You
may also find it useful to produce expected outputs and compare them. There are several recent labs which have
compared output files. You may also find it useful to check those script files to see how the comparison is performed.
Lab 8’s Birthday contract specifically compares story files and may be a good reference.
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5 Lab 10 Function Contracts
In this lab you will be responsible for fulfilling two lab contracts: the Adventure contract and the Deus Ex contract.
Each contract is designed to test you on some of the things you’ve learned throughout the instruction portion of this
lab.
For those of you who are concerned, when deciding which naming conventions you want to use in your code, favour
consistency in style, not dedication to a style that doesn’t work.
The contracts in this document are worth the following points values, for a total of 10.
Contract Points
Adventure 6
Deus Ex 4
Total 10
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5.1 Adventure
5.1.1 Problem
You will write a program that will simulate hero adventures in a variety of configurations.
5.1.2 Preconditions
You are required to complete a program which:
1. Is capable of handling Heroes as outlined in the Heroes section.
2. Is capable of handling Locations as outlined in the Locations section.
3. Is capable of having a hero challenge a location as outlined in the Challenge a Location section.
4. Is capable of executing each hero’s adventure in a thread pool.
5. Is capable of outputting the information in the Postconditions section.
Your program should read in the heroes and locations from the heroes.lot and locations.lot files. Once this is done,
you can run a thread pool of hero adventures until all of the adventures have concluded. Once the adventures have
concluded, print the desired outputs to the screen.
A single thread in this contract is considered a full adventure for a single hero. The adventure is defined by some
collection of locations that the given hero must attempt to challenge, one after the other, in order. If the hero is
successful, they will reach level 200 after completion of the final location on their path.
An adventure path is a series of locations in a specific order. For this contract you will be required to run programs
which test each hero against paths created such that they are in the following orders:
1. Level Path: Locations should be ordered by Level, from smallest level to largest.
2. Power Path: Locations should be ordered by Power rating, from smallest rating to largest.
3. Subtlety Path: Locations should be ordered by Subtlety rating, from smallest rating to largest.
4. Strategy Path: Locations should be ordered by Strategy rating, from smallest rating to largest.
5. Charm Path: Locations should be ordered by Charm rating, from smallest rating to largest.
You may perform all paths in a single program or in multiple programs, although if you do them all in a single program
make sure you don’t mix the paths. Your heroes should all run the same path before you print the final outcomes.
You should be careful not to mix the results of the adventure paths. For example, you shouldn’t be printing hero A’s
Strategy path outcomes with hero B’s Power path outcomes.
Note that using a heap can be a useful method for sorting things, assuming you construct the proper compare
function. Recall that we get a min-heap if our compare(A, B) function is always returning negative integers when
B < A. You can use this to your advantage to write compare functions for your heaps which are capable of creating
the paths mentioned above.
5.1.3 Postconditions
Your programs should be capable of creating and executing threads. All of the functions should be capable of executing
without crashing.
Your program(s) should produce two files for each path: PathName alive and PathName dead, where PathName
is the name of the path which was executed (level, power, subtlety, strategy, charm). Both files should
contain a list of heroes, one hero per line. You may find it necessary to sort your files for the purposes of testing with
your pipeline, as threads will often execute out of order between multiple runs, thus executing the various heroes’
adventures slightly differently each time. In the alive file you can include the hero’s name, followed by each of their
attributes in the order of Strength, Agility, Intelligence, Charm:
Rosalina the Vigilant 92 95 76 92
In the dead file, you should include the same information, but additionally on each line you should include the level
the character was at their death, and the location in which they died:
Rosalina the Vigilant 22 25 6 22 0 The Dread Catacombs
The above outputs are just examples and may not necessarily reflect the actual outputs, but should reflect the formatting.
If you use floating point values, your outputs may be slightly different, but still valid.
The last test you should perform is to choose one of your paths and execute it with different sized thread pools. Execute
your simluation on a single path for all thread pool sizes in [1, 10] and time each simulation (use sys/time.h to
access the gettimeofday function, which can provide you with microsecond times; man gettimeofday and Google
are your friend here). Print the time taken for each simulation in microseconds to the screen.
The heroes.lot and locations.lot files, which contain the heroes and locations data, can be found in CI/objects/adventure.
5.1.4 Restrictions
None.
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5.1.5 File Requirements
Your header files should contain your forward declarations, struct definitions and typedefs, as well as any library
imports (includes) you may need. Always protect your headers with a define guard. You will need to write a
main function for each program you provide, as well as a Makefile which successfully compiles all of your code.
You are also required to provide a .gitlab-ci.yml file so your code is properly tested in a pipeline of your own design.
Your source files, header files, and makefile should be placed in the Lab10/adventure/ directory in your GitLab
repository. Also be sure to include any libraries you need from previous labs or solutions.
5.1.6 Testing
To test your code, you should create a pipeline file. Create any necessary expected outputs for your programs and
store them in CI/objects/adventure directory. When your pipeline executes, copy the objects directory contents
into your contract directory, remove any executable and .o files, then run make. Next, test to ensure your executable
and .o files exist (library .o files do not need to be checked). If successful, execute your programs, being careful to
store any outputs in new files, then run your comparisons against expected output. If your comparisons are successful,
your pipeline should pass.
5.1.7 Sample Inputs and Outputs
None.
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5.2 Deus Ex
5.2.1 Problem
You will write a program that will simulate hero adventures in specific configurations.
5.2.2 Preconditions
Make a copy of your Adventure contract program and modify it so that each hero executes using an adventure path
which allows them to reach their highest potential level. You may use the results of the previous contract to decide
how to approach selecting the correct path for each hero, however you are not allowed to specifically select the best
path for each hero by name or class. You must use the hero’s attributes to decide which path they should take.
The heroes.lot and locations.lot files, which contain the heroes and locations data, can be found in CI/objects/adventure.
5.2.3 Postconditions
Your programs should be capable of creating and executing threads. All of the functions should be capable of executing
without crashing.
Your program should produce two files: deusex alive and deusex dead. Both files should contain a list of heroes,
one hero per line. You may find it necessary to sort your files for the purposes of testing with your pipeline, as
threads will often execute out of order between multiple runs, thus executing the various heroes’ adventures slightly
differently each time. In the alive file you can include the hero’s name, followed by each of their attributes in the
order of Strength, Agility, Intelligence, Charm:
Rosalina the Vigilant 92 95 76 92
In the dead file, you should include the same information, but additionally on each line you should include the level
the character was at their death, and the location in which they died:
Rosalina the Vigilant 22 25 6 22 0 The Dread Catacombs
The above outputs are just examples and may not necessarily reflect the actual outputs, but should reflect the formatting.
If

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