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-M AP Physics 1 - Final Exam - Fall 2020

Format: The exam will be a total of 70-75 min in length and will consist of both multiple choice and free response problems. You will need to bring a calculator and writing utensils.

Study Suggestions: Don’t study the what; focus on the how and the why. For example, how does the normal force change when the angle of incline is increased? Why does this happen? Going back through your old homework/quizzes/classwork and not only re-doing the problems, but also asking what concepts are at play, will aid in you preparing for this exam.See “How To Study” on PowerSchool. Come to tutorial if you have any questions.

I will post review resources on Web Assign and PowerSchool.

Google is also a magnificent tool. Don’t hesitate to google things such as “AP Physics 1 work and energy problems” to find an abundance of practice problems with answer keys online!!

In your groups, fluff out the study guide below. Add content underneath each bullet point that explains that concept.

Content:

¨ Trigonometry + Algebra

Units

Deriving equations

Vectors

Vector v.s. scalar

Vector have both magnitude and direction

Scalar only have magnitude

Symbol for a vector is an arrow

Length of the arrow indicates the magnitude of the vector

Direction the arrow is drawn indicates the direction of the quantity

1D: either go directly right, left, up, or down

Can use “+” or “-” to define their direction

2D: going at an angle

Cannot use “+” or “-”

Requires an angle (#) and a description to define direction

Vector Algebra (finding the resultant of two vectors, or resolving a 2D vector into its components)

¨ Equilibrium

What is equilibrium

All forces acting on the object sum up to zero. The object is moving at a constant velocity and zero acceleration.

Newton’s First Law

States that an object at rest will stay at rest, or an object in motion will stay in motion (in the same direction at constant speed), unless an unbalanced external force acts upon it (Law of Inertia)

An object is at equilibrium when the Fnet acting on the object is 0 N

An object at equilibrium can either be at rest or moving at a constant velocity

Acceleration = 0m/s^2 for an object at equilibrium

Free body diagrams

Force of gravity= go to force (goes down)

Normal force= perpendicular to the surface Force of friction= draw force opposite of motion

Incline planes: break gravity down into parallel and perpendicular component (mgsintheta and mgcostheta); mgcostheta is always opposite the normal force

Always draw the free body diagram before you start a problem

Inertia

The tendency of an object to resist changes in motion

The amount of inertia possessed by an object is dependent solely upon its mass

More mass = more inertia = more resistance

Mass, Weight, Normal Force, Tension, Friction (static and kinetic)

Mass : amount of material contained in an object

Measured in kilograms (kg)

Weight (W or Fg) : force due to gravity acting on an object

Measured in Newtons (N)

Calculated as Fg = mg

Normal force (N or FN) : a force of a surface on an object in contact with that surface

Acts perpendicular to a surface, away

A platform scale reads the normal force

At rest = Fnet = 0

Fg = FN

Mg = FN

Tension (T or F) : force transmitted through a string, rope, cable, or wire when it is pulled tight by forces acting from opposite ends

Directed along the length of the wire (for example) and pulls equally on the objects on opposite ends of the wire

Friction (Ff) : force of a surface on an object acting along a surface

Acts in opposite direction of object’s motion

Static - results when surfaces of two objects are at rest relative to one another

Kinetic - results when an object slides across a surface

Coefficient of friction : μ , a unitless quantity that tells how sticky two surfaces are

Larger μ means more friction

MAX FRICTION : Ff = μ x FN

Inclined Planes

Break gravity down into components

Parallel and perpendicular components (mgsintheta and mgcostheta)

When we calculating the horizontal force acting on the object on the Inclined planes we use the equation mg*sin(θ)

When we calculating the vertical force acting on the object on the Inclined planes we use the equation mg*cos(θ)

¨ Kinematics - the study of motion without considering mass or forces applied

Displacement

∆X = Xf - Xi

Direction and magnitude of the straight line between an initial and final position

Path taken DOES NOT matter, only starting point and end point

Measured in meters

Vector quantity

Define by - or +

Define by the angle measurement

Distance

(d) how much ground is covered during its motion

Velocity

Displacement over time (∆X/t)

Vector quality

m/s

Average velocity

Total distance/total time

Doesn't care about change speed throughout route

Pick two points, draw a straight line, and get the slope

instantaneous velocity

speed at one particular instant

Determine the slope of the tangent line to curve

Acceleration

Acceleration (a): tells how much an object’s velocity changes per second

Vector quantity

Measured in meters per second (m/s)

When an object speed up, acceleration is in the same direction as motion

When an object slows down, acceleration is opposite the direction of motion

An accelerating object can not be at equilibrium

Kinematics Graphs (x vs t, v vs t, a vs t)

Position vs time

Velocity is slope

Straight line- velocity constant

Curved, change in velocity

Velocity vs time

Slope is acceleration

Straight lines

Motion in One Dimension using kinematics equations

Projectile Motion using kinematics equations

Projectile- object which only force acting on it is gravity

Horizontally launched projectiles

Has initial velocity (vx) but not in y direction

Gain a vertical component and horizontal takes the same

Non horizontally launched projectiles (at an angle)

Initial velocity in x and y direction

Forces

Free body diagrams

A diagram that represents one or more objects, along with the forces acting on those objects

Objects are typically drawn as dots, where the dot represents the center of mass of the object

The forces are always shown as arrows starting on the dot and moving away in the direction the force acts

The length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the force

The arrows are always labeled with the type of force it is

Newton’s 2nd Law

The acceleration of an object is directly related to its net force and inversely related to its mass.

Net force

All forces added together

Fnet=ma

Acceleration

As mass decreases0, acceleration increases

Newton’s 3rd law

States that for every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force

All interactions involve an action force and a reaction force. Two objects are always involved

Smaller mass goes faster

The size of the forces on the first object equals the size of the force on the second object

The direction of the force on the first object is opposite to the direction of the force on the second object

Forces always come in pairs: equal and opposite action-reaction force pairs

Multiple object systems

Modified Atwood’s machine and Atwood’s machine

¨ Work and Energy

Work

How do you know work is done?

If ME changes OR there’s an unbalanced external force present

Work is NOT done if no change in energy or balanced external force

How do you calculate work?

W = F x D

Energy

Mechanical energy

The ability to do work; the sum of all kinetic and potential energy in a system

Systems (when can a system have Ug, when can a system have Us)

Includes all things outputting a force, Earth is in system for Ug

Conservation of energy

Energy can not be created or destroyed.

Power

Define

Rate at which energy is transferred

Units

Hp, Watts (W); J/S; Nm/s

Calculate

P = W/Δt

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