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Project for TELE9753
This is an individual project. The weight of the assessment is 20% of the final mark.
Each student should finish the project independently.
Each student should hand in one report with program code attached at the end.
At the beginning of each program, a brief description of the program must be accompanied.
It is reminded that any form of plagiarism is a breach of University policy and could cause
serious consequences. A cover page must be prepared clearly stating the contribution of
each group member. A paragraph “By signing herein, I certify that I finished the project
independently and no plagiarism has been committed. ” should also be included in the
cover page followed by the signature of the student.
The deadline of handing in the report is 5pm, April 30 2021. The report must be submitted
in Moodle.
Project Details
In this project, you are asked to evaluate the error performance of space-time block code
(Alamouti scheme) with two transmit antennas and a receiver antenna, and compare them
with receiver diversity with MRC.
Part 1. Simulate a wireless communication system over a flat Rayleigh fading channel with a
single transmit antenna and a single receiver antenna. Assume BPSK signals (+1 or -1) are
transmitted. The bit error rate (BER) of the system needs to be obtained through
simulation. Then the BER curve of the systems should be plotted against the SNR. Then
compare your simulation results to the theoretical results of the system. Comment and
justify your simulation results. Verify the diversity order of the (1 Tx, 1 Rx) system. (10
Marks)
Hints for simulation
(1) All variables are generally complex (containing real and imaginary parts).
(2) BPSK signal is used in all simulations, i.e., the original signal set is{−1,+1} .
(3) All channels are Rayleigh fading and independent of each other.
(4) The receiver has ideal knowledge of the channel coefficients.
(5) All simulations are based on one sample per symbol.
(6) All receivers are subject to AWGN, i.e. zero-mean Complex Normal Distribution CN
(0,N0). The noise variance for the real part is equal to that of the imaginary part, i.e.,
N0 /2.
(7) Show the simulation results as the dependence of bit error rate (BER) on signal to
noise ratio (SNR). Present your simulation results graphically (e.g., BER vs SNR
curves).
Part 2. Space-time block code (STBC) is an extension of block codes to the scenario with two
or more transmit antennas. The simplest form of STBCs with two transmit antennas (also
referred to as the Alamouti scheme) was proposed with error performance investigated by
simulation. You are asked to evaluate the error performance of the scheme through
computer simulation. You do need to obtain the error performance for one receive antenna
for the Alamouti scheme (2 Tx, 1 Rx). The fading type used in the simulation should be flat
Rayleigh fading channels. In the simulation, you can use BPSK modulation. Rayleigh fading is
assumed between the transmit and receive antenna. (10 Marks)
Part 3. MRC is a receive diversity scheme. You are also asked to simulate a system with a
single transmit and two receive antennas. Assume that MRC is employed at the receiver.
Please compare the transmit diversity scheme (STBC) with receiver diversity of MRC. (10
Marks)
Part 4. Compare the results in Parts 1, 2, and 3, and give your quantitative and qualitative
evaluation (comparison) of the performance of the Alamouti scheme, and TAS. You are also
encouraged to comment on the advantages and disadvantages of these schemes. (10
Marks)
Part 5. In Lecture 9, we discussed multiuser capacity region with single transmit and receive
antenna. If the base station has two receive antennas, and two users each has a single
transmit antenna, discuss and plot the two user uplink capacity region. (10 Marks)
There is no fixed format for your report. As a minimum, you should include the necessary
background, system model, description of each scheme, simulation environment, simulation
results, discussion and comparison. Again, how you organize the report, and the title of each
section of the report, is a matter of your choice. Just bear in mind that the report should
contain enough information for a person with fundamental knowledge in digital
communications to easily follow and understand. Avoid copying a large part of the content
from the papers.
Whenever possible, try to rephrase them.
We will provide further Hints for the project in our consultation in order for the students to
start the basic program simulations.

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