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Game Engines and Graphics 2022
Assignment 1 – Primitive 2D Drawing DRAFT V1
Assignment Specification ................................................................................................................................... 1 Requirements ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 Command file format .......................................................................................................................................... 2 Program Operation.............................................................................................................................................. 3 Submission Details.............................................................................................................................................. 4 Due Date ............................................................................................................................................................. 4 Assessment Feedback ......................................................................................................................................... 4 Marking Scheme - Deliverables.......................................................................................................................... 5 Academic Misconduct ........................................................................................................................................ 5 Sample Input File................................................................................................................................................ 6 Sample Output .................................................................................................................................................... 8
Assignment Specification
In this assignment, you will be required to implement some of the algorithms that we have discussed in lectures. You will need to write a generic frame buffer class that is able to represent images and display them in your application. Using this frame buffer class, you will need to implement the ability to draw pixels, lines, circles, templates and filled primitives without using any existing graphics libraries. The only existing capability which you are allowed to use is that which takes your image and displays it to the screen - otherwise you must implement all the 2D graphics functions yourself. For other non-graphics functions, such as sorting a list or writing to a disk, you may use existing libraries for your implementation. You can use Java Swing for the User Interface elements but should not use any other external libraries or netbeans.
Requirements
You are required to implement a drawing program that is written in Java. You should not use any other languages for this assignment.
Your program must be able to read a command file supplied at start up and then render the specified primitives into your frame buffer class. I provide some sample input tiles that your 2D engine should be able to render.
You must implement the frame buffer class and all primitive rendering operations yourself, using no other libraries or classes to assist you. You may only use other classes to display the final frame buffer to the window, and to perform general I/O operations such as reading the text file and printing out any debugging information. You may not use code from any other sources – you must write everything yourself.
You must implement a parser that is able to read in the simple configuration files and render them to the display.
Dr Ross Travers Smith

Command file format
The command files that must be read by your program are based on a simple text format to make it easy to implement. Each command is represented as a command followed by the required arguments, using one or more space characters (or a comma in some cases) as a separator, and a new line character to end the command. Anything after a # character should be ignored to the end of the line as a comment. Every command is only one line long.
As each command is parsed, you should execute the command by drawing the primitive to the frame buffer, and then display it immediately so the user can see the output as it is being assembled. You should also print out a line of debugging to the console showing the operation of the program and what operation it has just performed. When the end of the file is reached the program is complete and should wait for the user to close down the program. Here are the commands that you are required to implement:
INIT [width] [height]
This will always be the first command in the file. It specifies the dimensions of the frame buffer required.
POINT [xc] [yc] ([R],[G],[B])
Draws a single pixel at (xc,yc) using the specified (R,G,B) colour. Note that each RGB channel is 8-bits and may vary from 0 to 255. You need to complete the functionality for this function
LINE_FLOAT [x1] [y1] [x2] [y2] ([R],[G],[B])
Draws a line from (x1,y1) to (x2,y2), using the specified (R,G,B) colour. Note that each RGB channel is 8-bits and may vary from 0 to 255. This can use floats for the calculation i.e y=mx+c. Needs to be updated to use all colour channels (RGB).
LINE [x1] [y1] [x2] [y2] ([R],[G],[B])
Draws a line from (x1,y1) to (x2,y2), using the specified (R,G,B) colour. Note that each RGB channel is 8-bits and may vary from 0 to 255. This should use Bresenham’s line algorithm.
OUTLINE_POLYGON [x1] [y1] [x2] [y2] ... [xN] [yN] ([R],[G],[B])
Draws an outline polygon with vertices (x1,y1), (x2,y2), ... (xN, yN) using the specified RGB colour. Note that there may be an infinite number of vertices specified, at any arbitrary location.
FILL_POLYGON [x1] [y1] [x2] [y2] ... [xN] [yN] ([R],[G],[B])
Draws a filled polygon with vertices (x1,y1), (x2,y2), ... (xN,yN) using the specified RGB colour. Note that there may be an infinite number of vertices specified. It should be possible to render polygons that have degenerate or inline vertices without experiencing problems. The polygon may be convex or concave, and edges may cross over each other. When filling the polygon, you should use the odd-even rule to decide on which parts to be filled.
OUTLINE_CIRCLE [xc] [yc] [radius] ([R],[G],[B])
Draws an outline circle centred about the point (xc,yc) with the specified radius (note that radius is half the diameter). The specified RGB colour should be used for the drawing operation.
FILL_CIRCLE [xc] [yc] [radius] ([R],[G],[B])
Draws a filled circle centred about the point (xc,yc) with the specified radius (note that radius is half the diameter). The specified RGB colour should be used for the drawing operation.
OUTLINE_STAR [xc] [yc] [radius] [points] ([R],[G],[B]
Dr Ross Travers Smith

Draws an outline star about the point (xc,yc) with a specified radius (note that radius is half the diameter) and number of points on the star is also specified. The specified RGB colour should be used for the drawing operation.
OUTLINE_STAR [xc] [yc] [radius] [points] ([R],[G],[B]
Draws an filled star about the point (xc,yc) with a specified radius (note that radius is half the diameter) and number of points on the star is also specified. The specified RGB colour should be used for the drawing operation.
LOAD_JPEG filename.jpg
This method allows you to load a jpeg file, extract its pixel data and store it in your own pixel buffer. You may use existing java libraries to help with loading the file.
***THIS METHOD IS PROVIDED***
PAUSE [msec]
Pause the processing of the configuration file for the specified number of milliseconds. This is used to slow the program down so that the assembly of the primitives can be observed more easily.
***THIS METHOD IS PROVIDED***
SAVE [filename.bmp]
Take the current frame buffer and save it to the specified output file. You can find information via Google on how to implement a BMP file, which is simply a header followed by the 24-bit raw frame buffer data. Your BMP file should at least be viewable using the Windows file explorer. Be careful to make sure you write the width, height, and stride values correctly for all possible image sizes. You may either use a library to achieve this or write out the raw binary file yourself.
Program Operation
You source code must compile and run with JDK/JRE 8. Your program should run from the command line and be able to read its commands in from a filename that is supplied by the user. The class name containing the main() method must be called Assign1 with exactly this case and spelling. The command line syntax must be as follows:
java Assign1 [cmdfile]
If no arguments are supplied to the program then it should print out a command line display with information about the program and its usage. It is expected that you will check all command line arguments to ensure they are valid and generate a suitable error message if they are not correct.
Note: You may wish to add a debug mode so you can manually enter your commands to test their operation. To achieve this you should add a switch that allows this operation i.e.
java Assign1 -debug
To compile your program, we will take the ZIP file you supply, extract out its contents, compile the source code using javac *.java, and then run it as shown above. Do not include any extra sub-directories containing code because it will not be compiled. Do not use packages or jar files.
Dr Ross Travers Smith

Make sure that if you use any Java classes, that you only use ones that are available in the standard JDK libraries. You may implement the display of your frame buffer class in any way you want, but you should not use existing libraries to implement any of your primitives or file saving operations. You may not use source code from other sources, even if referenced, because it is not your own work.
All possible error conditions should be checked and dealt with avoiding program crashing or null pointer exceptions being seen by a user. Any invalid command line arguments or invalid input file strings should be handled appropriately without exceptions or incorrect behaviour being observed. If an unknown command is encountered, you should print a warning message but then continue processing the file. If coordinates are specified which exceed the canvas size, they should still be correctly rendered. If other values such as colours are not valid then you should correct them to sensible defaults.
You should NOT use any java packages. You should not use net beans or any other libraries.
Class Structure:
Class Assign1 (Contains the main method and file parsing functions) *required*
Class FrameBuffer (Contains the int[]pixels and provides all the primitive graphics functions. I suggest creating a new method for each primitive function i.e. void init(int width, int height) void point(int xc, int yc, int r, int g, int b) *required*
Class MainCanvas (Provides the ability to create a 2D graphics window and accepts a FrameBuffer object) *required*
Submission Details
All assignments must be submitted via the learnonline submission system through the course page. Create a single zip file with the name [emailID].zip (replace emailID with your own!). When the file is unzipped it should contain the following:
emailID (folder with the following)
- Assign1.java (required)
- FrameBuffer.java (required)
- MainCanvas.java (required)
- Test01.txt (please submit all test files you create - increment the id of each. i.e. Test01.txt, Test02.txt)
- Assessment.txt Completed self assessment
- Readme.txt any additional information you wish to share with the assessor. If you implemented a Swing
GUI include the operating instructions. Also include information if you have attempted the bonus section.
Due Date
See Course webpage
Assessment Feedback
Feedback on assignments will be provided two to three weeks after submission. Feedback will be available through the course webpage using the Gradebook system.
Dr Ross Travers Smith

Marking Scheme – Deliverables (Up to 100 points maximum)
Please copy past the below into Assessment.txt and fill in your self assessment mark. You should also include any relevant comments on what you have implement successfully and/or not included. You can achieve a maximum of 100 points although you can attempt all features below with total >100.
[5 Marks] Neatly formatted code with comments explaining the operation of the code
[5 Marks] Successful compilation with no fatal errors, start up for operation and no run time errors during simple testing. (Note: code that does not compile will receive zero for the assignment)
[5 Marks] Passing each of the commands correctly, printing the current method to the console, dealing with comments correctly. Base code is provided, you need to update to complete for all aspects.
[5 Marks] POINT - Correctly drawing a point.
[5 Marks] LINE_FLOAT – Correctly drawing a line using floating point calculation y=mx+c. Provided for debugging when working on the line function.
[15 Marks] LINE: Correctly drawing lines using Bresenham’s algorithm
[5 Marks] OUTLINE_POLYGON Correctly drawing an outline polygon
[15 Marks] FILL_POLYGON – Correctly drawing a filled polygon
[5 Marks] OUTLINE_CIRCLE [xc] [yc] [radius] ([R],[G],[B]) using the midpoint algorithm [5 Marks] FILL_CIRCLE [xc] [yc] [radius] ([R],[G],[B]) using the midpoint algorithm
[5 Marks] OUTLINE_STAR [xc] [yc] [radius] [points] ([R],[G],[B])
[10 Marks] FILL_STAR [xc] [yc] [radius] [points] ([R],[G],[B])
**[0 Marks] PAUSE [msec] Allows the pause parameter to delay between commands. Provided
**[0 Marks] SAVE [filename.bmp] saves the current frame buffer to an image file in .bmp format Provided. [5 Marks] Providing a suitably complex testing input file that challenges all the special cases for 2D rendering (i.e. similar to the sample.txt I provided but with more detail – be creative!)
[5 Marks] Supporting all functions to ensure that lines that go beyond the canvas can still be drawn showing only the visible components.
[5 Marks] Self assessment with estimated marks for each section and a status description. *All students are required to submit a self assessment*
BONUS MARKS:
[20 Marks] Up to 10 marks for new features that are impressive.
• One example is an image converter that creates a text file from an image that your 2D engine will
render. This would likely be a separate app.
• New rendering functions such as a mask or crop like feature.
• GUI operated version.
• A game using your 2D engine with interactive keyboard controls.
Academic Misconduct
Deliberate academic misconduct such as plagiarism is subject to penalties. You are advised to become familiar with the University’s policy available at http://resource.unisa.edu.au/mod/book/view.php?id=72184 and also the slides which were presented during the first week of the course.
Note that we have a number of electronic systems in place to quickly and easily check for plagiarism amongst students. All of the assignments are compared using special tools designed to look for similarities between Java programs. The plagiarism checking programs do not just compare the actual Java code, but instead perform comparisons on the code after it has been compiled. Performing cosmetic changes such as reformatting code,
Dr Ross Travers Smith

renaming variables, or reordering code may fool a human under casual inspection but will still be detected by the plagiarism checker as being similar.
Any assignments found to be in violation of the university’s rules on academic misconduct will automatically receive zero. Furthermore, you may also fail the subject and/or receive an official note in your academic transcript.
The best way to avoid being penalised for plagiarism is to not cheat on your assignment. Do not share your code with anyone, do not let any one else do your assignment for you, and do not leave your computer unattended or share your password with anyone. If you are working with friends it is ok to discuss the assignment and possible ways of solving it, but you should not share your code. Sharing code with others is still considered academic misconduct. The golden rule for working on your assignments is never show another student the material you intend on handing up.
Sample Input File
Copy and paste the following into a file “sample1.txt” and parse it to your program should produce an output that looks like the image below. This file provides basic testing and should not be considered complete – it does not test all the functions and is only provided to help you start with your own test files. I will run a very long and complicated test file to challenge your rendering engine algorithm implementation.
#
#
# Sample data file provided for testing #
#Create a frame with 500x500 pixels (top left should be 0,0) INIT 500 500
# Draw some red points and pause for .4seconds after all are drawn POINT 50 50 (255,0,0)
POINT 450 50 (255,0,0)
POINT 50 450 (255,0,0)
POINT 450 450 (255,0,0) PAUSE 400
#Draw two blue squares around the points using lines LINE 49 49 451 49 (0,0,255)
LINE 451 49 451 451 (0,0,255)
LINE 451 451 49 451 (0,0,255)
LINE 49 49 49 451 (0,0,255) PAUSE 400
#Draw a set of blue lines that fan out from the center LINE 250 250 150 150 (0,0,255)
LINE 250 250 200 150 (0,0,255)
LINE 250 250 250 150 (0,0,255)
LINE 250 250 300 150 (0,0,255) LINE 250 250 350 150 (0,0,255)
LINE 250 250 150 350 (0,0,255)
Dr Ross Travers Smith

LINE 250 250 200 350 (0,0,255) LINE 250 250 250 350 (0,0,255) LINE 250 250 300 350 (0,0,255) LINE 250 250 350 350 (0,0,255) PAUSE 400
# Draw a 200x200 empty box
OUTLINE_POLYGON 150 150 350 150 350 350 150 350 (0,0,255) PAUSE 400
#Draw two filled green polygons in a cross shape FILL_POLYGON -10 245 510 245 510 255 -10 255 (0,255,0) FILL_POLYGON 245 0 255 0 255 500 245 500 245 0 (0,255,0) PAUSE 400
# Draw three red circle of diameter 50 with a white outline FILL_CIRCLE 100 100 50 (255,0,0)
FILL_CIRCLE 400 100 50 (255,0,0)
FILL_CIRCLE 400 400 50 (255,0,0)
FILL_CIRCLE 100 400 50 (255,0,0) OUTLINE_CIRCLE 100 100 51 (255,255,255) OUTLINE_CIRCLE 400 100 51 (255,255,255) OUTLINE_CIRCLE 400 400 51 (255,255,255) OUTLINE_CIRCLE 100 400 51 (255,255,255) PAUSE 400
#Draw four white outline circles OUTLINE_CIRCLE 200 300 50 (255,255,255) OUTLINE_CIRCLE 200 200 50 (255,255,255) OUTLINE_CIRCLE 300 200 50 (255,255,255) OUTLINE_CIRCLE 300 300 50 (255,255,255) PAUSE 400
# Draw a crazy polygon with crossed edges
FILL_POLYGON 0 0 160 0 160 160 40 160 40 40 200 40 200 200 0 200 (255,0,0) PAUSE 400
# Draw a crazy zig zag polygon (highly concave)
FILL_POLYGON 0 0 50 50 100 0 150 50 200 0 200 50 150 0 100 50 50 0 0 50 (0,90,0) PAUSE 400
# Note that all of the following commands are also legal as well
# even though they have multiple spaces and inconsistent formatting! POINT 250 250 (90,100 ,255)#Thisisacomment
POINT -250 -250 ( 90, 100 , 255)#This is a comment
# Now save the whole lot out to a file before exiting SAVE sample1.bmp
# Sleep so we can view the output in case they quit straight away PAUSE 5000
 

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