# MAST90083辅导、辅导Java,python程序

School of Mathematics and Statistics
MAST90083: Computational Statistics and Data Science
Assignment 1
Due date: No later than 11:59pm on Monday 5th September 2022
Weight: 15%
Question 1: Linear Regression
This question relates to the methods used to resolve the issues present in linear regression by
doing variable selection so that predictors that fail to significantly explain the response can
be dropped. However you will find that ridge regression although penalizes the coefficients,
still fails to do variable selection. Lasso on other hand resolves this issue by only shrinking
the insignificant coefficients towards zero. This question makes use of the Hitters dataset.
1. Load the Hitters dataset. Remove all those rows from Hitters dataset that have entry
NA in the §salary§ column
2. For a design matrix construction, use function §model.matrix§ to read all variables in
Hitters dataset excluding the salary and store them in variable x. Also, read the salary
variable and store it in variable y. Generate a sequence of 100 values of 竹 between 1010
and 10?2 and call the function §glmnet§ from glmnet library. You can generate the
sequence as 10托seq(10,?2, length = 100), where 托 is a §raised to§ sign. For glmnet,
set 汐 = 0, and estimate ridge coefficients for 100 竹 values. Then, observe the set of
coefficients for two extreme values of 竹 i.e. 1010 and also for 10?2. For which value of

3. Now, draw a plot of l2-norm of coefficient values (excluding the intercept＊s coefficient
value) against the logarithm of the 竹 values. Can you say from this plot that you
cannot really decide the optimal 竹 value between 1010 and 10?2, better is to use the
mean square error (MSE) plot against the 竹 values? Explain how can you say that?
4. The glment library already has a function §cv.glmnet§ that performs ten fold cross
validation (CV). You are going to use this function to select an optimal 竹. Now, first
you need to set the seed equal to 10 for random number generator. Then randomly
pick 131 samples from x for all variables and also the corresponding samples from
y to construct a training dataset. The rest of the samples can be saved for testing
dataset. Using this training dataset, plot the cross validation results, and find the best

value (MSE value obtained using testing dataset and best 竹), you may want to use
§predict§ function here. Now refit the ridge regression model on the full data set using
the 竹 chosen by CV. Examine the coefficients are they all present, similar to the linear
regression case?
1
5. This time we set 汐 = 1 (Lasso case) and again plot the cross validation results, and find
the best 竹 value (using training set) and its corresponding MSE value (using testing
set). Now predict the coefficients again using the best 竹 that we just selected. Were
all coefficients selected again? Well most of them are zero, are they not?
Question 2: Model Selection
In this question we consider the analysis of three model selection criteria for selecting the
order p of the following model
yt = 耳1yt?1 + ....+ 耳pyt?p + 灰t t = p+ 1, ..., n yt ﹋ R
where 灰t are independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) from N (0, 考
2). The criteria we
consider are
IC1 = log
(

)
+
2 (p+ 1)
T
IC2 = log
(

)
+
T + p
T ? p? 2
IC3 = log
(

)
+
p log (T )
T
where 考?2p =
T
= ′y?y?′
2
T
.
1. In the IC＊s given above, T represents the number of effective samples. In the case of
the model of order p above what is T?
2. Find the least square estimator of 耳 = (耳1, ..., 耳p)
>
3. Provide the expression of 考?2p
4. Generate two sets of 100 samples using the models
M1 : yt = 0.434yt?1+0.217yt?2+0.145yt?3+0.108yt?4+0.087yt?5+灰t 灰t ‵ N(0, 1)
M2 : yt = 0.682yt?1 + 0.346yt?2 + 灰t 灰t ‵ N(0, 1)
5. Using these two sets, compute the values of IC1, IC2 and IC3 for p = 1, ..., 10 for
models M1 and M2. For each model provide a figure illustrating the variations of IC1,
IC2 and IC3 (plot the three criteria in a single figure for each model).
6. Using model M1 generate 1000 sets (vectors) of size 100 and provide a table of counts
of the selected model by IC1, IC2 and IC3
7. Using model M1 generate 1000 sets of size 15 and provide a table of counts of the
selected model by IC1, IC2 and IC3
2
8. Repeat questions 6 and 7 using model M2.
9. What do you observe from these tables?
10. Derive expressions for the probabilities of overfitting for the model selection criteria
IC1, IC2 and IC3. For the derivation you will assume the true model to be p0 and
consider overfitting by L extra parameters.
11. Provide tables of the calculated probabilities for M1 in the cases n = 25 and n = 100
with L = 1, ..., 8.
12. What are the important remarks that can be made from these probability tables?
13. The tables obtained from question 11 provide overfitting information as a function of
the sample size. We are now interested in the case of large sample size or when n↙﹢
(p0&L fixed). Derive the expressions of the probabilities of overfitting in this case.
14. What is the important observation that you can make?