# 辅导 HW2: Shared Memory Particle Simulation (

HW2: Shared Memory Particle Simulation (Extra Credit)
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HW2: Shared Memory Particle Simulation (Extra Credit)

Details
Extra Credit Target
Extra Credit (5 points) Target:
LSC [1e3, 1e6] <= 1.20 where LSC = Linear Scaling Coefficient between 1e3 and 1e6 particles.
Due February 15 at 11:59 PM ET no slip day, no late policy.
Overview
This assignment is an introduction to parallel programming using a shared memory model. In this assignment, we will be
parallelizing a toy particle simulation (similar simulations are used in mechanics (http://www.google.com/url?
simulation,
particles interact by repelling one another. A run of our simulation is shown here:
The particles repel one another, but only when closer than a cutoff distance highlighted around one particle in grey.
Asymptotic Complexity
Serial Solution Time Complexity
If we were to naively compute the forces on the particles by iterating through every pair of particles, then we would expect
the asymptotic complexity of our simulation to be O(n^2).
However, in our simulation, we have chosen a density of particles sufficiently low so that with n particles, we expect only O(n)
interactions. An efficient implementation can reach this time complexity. The first part of your assignment will be to
implement this linear time solution in a serial code, given a naive O(n^2) implementation. Submit Assignment
HW2: Shared Memory Particle Simulation (Extra Credit)
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Parallel Speedup
Suppose we have a code that runs in time T = O(n) on a single processor. Then we'd hope to run close to time T/p when
using p processors. After implementing an efficient serial O(n) solution, you will attempt to reach this speedup using OpenMP.
Due Date: Friday, February 24th 2023 at 11:59 PM
Instructions
Teams
Note that you will work individually for this assignment.

Getting Set Up
The starter code is available in the course Github repo and should work out
of the box. To get started, we recommend you log in to Perlmutter and download the first part of the assignment. This will
look something like the following:

CMakeLists.txt common.h job-openmp job-serial main.cpp openmp.cpp serial.cpp
There are five files in the base repository. Their purposes are as follows:
CMakeLists.txt
The build system that manages compiling your code.
main.cpp
A driver program that runs your code.
common.h
A header file with shared declarations
job-openmp
A sample job script to run the OpenMP executable
job-serial
A sample job script to run the serial executable
serial.cpp - - - You may modify this file.
A simple O(n^2) particle simulation algorithm. It is your job to write an O(n) serial algorithm within the simulate_one_step
function.
openmp.cpp - - - You may modify this file.
A skeleton file where you will implement your openmp simulation algorithm. It is your job to write an algorithm within the
simulate_one_step function.
Please do not modify any of the files besides serial.cpp and openmp.cpp.
Building our Code Submit Assignment
HW2: Shared Memory Particle Simulation (Extra Credit)
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First, we need to make sure that the CMake module is loaded.
You should put the above command in your ~/.bash_profile file to avoid typing them every time you log in.
Next, let's build the code. CMake prefers out of tree builds, so we start by creating a build directory.
Next, we have to configure our build. We can either build our code in Debug mode or Release mode. In debug mode,
optimizations are disabled and debug symbols are embedded in the binary for easier debugging with GDB. In release mode,
optimizations are enabled, and debug symbols are omitted. For example:
-- The C compiler identification is GNU 11.2.0
...
-- Configuring done
-- Generating done
-- Build files have been written to: /global/homes/s/student/hw2/build
Once our build is configured, we may actually execute the build:
Scanning dependencies of target serial
[ 16%] Building CXX object CMakeFiles/serial.dir/main.cpp.o
[ 33%] Building CXX object CMakeFiles/serial.dir/serial.cpp.o
[ 50%] Linking CXX executable serial
[ 50%] Built target serial
Scanning dependencies of target openmp
[ 66%] Building CXX object CMakeFiles/openmp.dir/main.cpp.o
[ 83%] Building CXX object CMakeFiles/openmp.dir/openmp.cpp.o
[100%] Built target openmp
CMakeCache.txt CMakeFiles cmake_install.cmake Makefile openmp serial job-openmp job-serial
We now have two binaries (openmp and serial) and two job scripts (job-openmp and job-serial).
For info on running jobs and editing the code, refer to the HW1 page.
Running the Program
Both executables have the same command line interface. Without losing generality, we discuss how to operate the serial
program here. Here's how to allocate an interactive node and run your program (warning: do not run on the login nodes.
The benchmark will yield an incorrect result, and you will slow system performance for all users).
student@login04:~/hw2> salloc -N 1 -q interactive -t 01:00:00 --constraint cpu --account=m4341
salloc: Granted job allocation 53324632
salloc: Waiting for resource configuration
salloc: Nodes nid02346 are ready for job
:~/hw2> cd build Submit Assignment
HW2: Shared Memory Particle Simulation (Extra Credit)
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:~/hw2/build> ./serial
Simulation Time = 1.43277 seconds for 1000 particles.
You can also run the program using the batch scripts that you provide. By default, the program runs with 1000 particles. The
number of particles can be changed with the "-n" command line parameter:
:~/hw2/build> ./serial -n 10000
Simulation Time = 195.029 seconds for 10000 particles.
If we rerun the program, the initial positions and velocities of the particles will be randomized because the particle seed is
unspecified. By default, the particle seed will be unspecified; this can be changed with the "-s" command line parameter:
:~/hw2/build> ./serial -s 150
Simulation Time = 1.45459 seconds for 1000 particles.
This will set the particle seed to 150 which initializes the particles in a reproducible way. We will test the correctness of your
code by randomly selecting several particle seeds and ensuring the particle positions are correct when printed with the "-o"
command line parameter. You can print the particle positions to a file specified with the "-o" parameter:
:~/hw2/build> ./serial -o serial.parts.out
Simulation Time = 1.78357 seconds for 1000 particles.
This will create a serial.parts.out file with the particle positions after each step listed. You can use the hw2-rendering tool to
convert this into a .gif file of your particles. See the below section on Rendering Output for more information.
You can use the "-h" command line parameter to print the help menu summarizing the parameter options:
:~/hw2/build> ./serial -h
Options:
-h: see this help
-n : set number of particles
-o : set the output file name
-s : set particle initialization seed
Important notes for Performance:
There will be two types of scaling that are tested for your parallel codes:
In strong scaling we keep the problem size constant but increase the number of processors
In weak scaling we increase the problem size proportionally to the number of processors so the work/processor stays the
same (Note that for the purposes of this assignment we will assume a linear scaling between work and processors)
While the scripts we are providing have small numbers of particles 1000 to allow for the O(n ) algorithm to finish execution,
the final codes should be tested with values much larger (50000-1000000) to better see their performance.
We will grade your assignment by reviewing your assignment write-up, measuring the scaling of both the openmp and serial
implementations, and benchmarking your code's raw performance. To benchmark your code, we will compile it with the
exact process detailed above, with the GNU compiler. We will run your submissions on Perlmutter's CPU processors.
There are usually some groups every year who come up with faster methods to compute the particle repulsion force function
(i.e. rearranging the arithmetic, changing the formula, or using some fancy instructions). This is great, but small differences in
the floating point position values begin to add up until the simulation output diverges from our ground truth (even though your
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Submit Assignment
HW2: Shared Memory Particle Simulation (Extra Credit)
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method of computation might be more accurate than ours). Since (a) the point of the assignment is to explore OpenMP
parallelism, and (b) we can't anticipate every possible way to compute this force function, here is the rule: if it doesn't pass
the correctness check we provide you reliably, then it's not allowed.
Submission Details (Similar to HW1)
1. Make sure you have our most updated source code on your Permultter machine. We have updated the CMake file for this
submission.
2. Make sure you have only modified the file serial.cpp and openmp.cpp, and it compiles and runs as desired.
3. Get your groupd ID, same as HW1. On Cavas, under the "People" section, there is a hw1 tab. Click on the tab and you'll
see canvas has assigned a group id to each of you individually. Use the search bar to enter your name and find your group id.
Treat it as a two digit number. (If you are group 4, your group id is "04").
4. Ensure that your write-up pdf is located in your source directory, next to serial.cpp It should be
named CS5220Group04_hw2.pdf.
5. From your build directory, run:
student@perlmutter:~/hw2/build> cmake -DGROUP_NO=04 ..
student@perlmutter:~/hw2/build> make package
This second command will fail if the PDF is not present.
6. Confirm that it worked using the following command. You should see output like:
student@perlmutter:~/hw2/build> tar tfz CS5220Group04_hw2.tar.gz
CS5220Group04_hw2/CS5220Group04_hw2.pdf
CS5220Group04_hw2/serial.cpp
CS5220Group04_hw2/openmp.cpp
Writeup Details
A plot in log-log scale that shows that your serial and parallel codes run in O(n) time and a description of the data
structures that you used to achieve it.
A description of the synchronization you used in the shared memory implementation.
A description of the design choices that you tried and how did they affect the performance.
Speedup plots that show how closely your OpenMP code approaches the idealized p-times speedup and a discussion on
whether it is possible to do better.
Where does the time go? Consider breaking down the runtime into computation time, synchronization time and/or
communication time. How do they scale with p?
Notes:
Scaling sustained by your codes on the Perlmutter supercomputer (varying n).
Performance sustained by your codes on the Perlmutter supercomputer.
Submit Assignment
HW2: Shared Memory Particle Simulation (Extra Credit)
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Explanations of your methodologies and the performance features you observed (including what didn't work).
You must use the GNU C Compiler for this assignment. If your code does not compile and run with GCC, it will not be
Rendering Output
The output files that are produced from running the program with the "-o" command line parameter can be fed into the hw2-
rendering tool made available to convert them into .gif files. These animations will be a useful tool in debugging. To get
started clone the hw2-rendering repo:
This tool uses python. This can be loaded on Perlmutter with the following command:
We can then convert the output files to gifs with the following command: make sure to allocate an interactive node first!
Here serial.parts.out is an output file from the "-o" command line parameter. You should find a particles.gif file in your
directory. The number 0.01 is the cutoff distance (will be drawn around each particle).
Output Correctness
The output files that are produced from running the program with the "-o" command line parameter can be fed into the hw2-
correctness tool made available to perform a correctness check. This is the same correctness check we will be performing
when grading the homework, however, we will randomly select the particle seeds. To get started clone the hw2-correctness
repo:
This tool uses python. This can be loaded on Perlmutter with the following command:
We can then test the output files for correctness with the following command: make sure to allocate an interactive node
first!
:~/hw2/build> ~/HW2_correctness/correctness-check.py serial.parts.out correct.parts.out
If the program prints an error, then your output is incorrect. Here serial.parts.out is an output file from the "-o" command line
parameter from your code. This can be substituted for any output you wish to test the correctness for. The correct.parts.out
can be generated from the provided O(n^2) serial implementation. Remember to specify a particle seed with "-s" to ensure
the same problem is solved between the two output files. The hw2-correctness repo provides the "verf.out" file which is the
correct output with particle seed set to 1 "-s 1".
Resources
Programming in shared and distributed memory models are introduced in Lectures.
Shared memory implementations may require using locks that are available as omp_lock_t (http://www.google.com/url?
q=http%3A%2F%2Fmsdn.microsoft.com%2Fen?Submit Assignment
HW2: Shared Memory Particle Simulation (Extra Credit)

If you are using TAU or HPCToolkit you should run in your \$SCRATCH directory which has faster disk access to the
compute nodes (profilers can generate big profile files).